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Environmental Issues : Water Pollution

Essay on Water Pollution

It is said that the third world war would be fought for water and seeing the current situation of water crisis in the world it could also not be ignored. The increasing water crisis across the world has given birth to many issues and water pollution has added more to it. The following 1000 words essay on water pollution will focus on the issue of water pollution, its causes, effects and prevention. You can use this article on water pollution while writing water pollution essay, speech on water pollution or even few lines on water pollution etc.

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It is a well known fact that two third of the Earth is covered with water but most of the water is not suitable for human consumption. Only 1% of the water available on Earth is suitable for human consumption hence it is our prime responsibility that we should conserve water and save it from pollution. Water is essential for our survival and water pollution is causing a serious question on the survival of the human race.

What is Water Pollution?

Water Pollution is the mixing of impurities and pollutants with freshwater resulting in degrading its quality. The consumption of polluted water leads to various fatal diseases as well as affects the aquatic species and marine ecosystem.

What are Pollutants?

Pollutants are the substance which mixes up with natural resources namely air, water, land etc and contaminates it resulting in pollution.
The pollutants which contaminates water are chemicals, industrial and household sewage, heavy metals, oils, organic compounds, pathogens etc. These pollutants get mixed up with fresh water thereby making it polluted and unsuitable for human consumption.

Causes of Water Pollution

Water Pollution is caused due to various reasons and some of them are listed below:

Rapid Urbanization

After the development in science and technology and rapid development, people started living in colonies. These developments rose up to manifolds gradually dumping the waste and sewage into water bodies. Though the nature has its own way of cleaning itself over a period of time but the process of dumping waste is much faster than the cleansing leading to water pollution.

Industrial Waste Disposal

The residue and waste of industries are usually disposed off in rivers and water bodies without any treatment. These hazardous chemical content disposals not only make the water toxic but it also affects the aquatic animals and the ecosystem of the water bodies.

Heavy Metals

The heavy metals like Arsenic and Mercury react with the groundwater and make it toxic. These heavy metals are found in certain areas which are highly poisonous to living beings. These metals make the aquifers contaminated and lead to various diseases.

Radioactive Waste Disposal

Radioactive waste disposal from nuclear reactors could also pollute the water resources. These radioactive chemicals if disposed of in seas or oceans might carry it in other parts of the world causing heavy damages to the flora and fauna.

Oil Spills in Oceans

The ship accidents occurring in oceans are majorly responsible for oil spills in oceans. The oil creates a layer over the water and blocks the sunlight and air from entering into the water resulting in killing animals and plants. The oil spills also affects the birds and reptiles and they gradually succumb to death.

Effects of Water Pollution

Water Pollution is creating havoc across the globe. Be it any country, water pollution has already killed millions of lives in the world. It has not only affected the human beings but also forced the extinction of various animal species.

Let us discuss few of the major effects of water pollution:

Causing Fatal Diseases

According to WHO, around 4 lac people are killed by consuming contaminated water across the globe every year. The water gets contaminated due to the pollutants which get mixed with water due to untreated sewage system and waste disposal. These contain harmful bacteria, viruses and pathogens including toxic chemicals which cause diseases like Cholera, Diarrhea, Typhoid and various other water borne diseases.

Damages the Ecosystem

The toxic chemicals being disposed off in rivers and water bodies disrupts the survival of the aquatic species and also affects the food chain leading to the destruction of the ecosystem. The destruction of the ecosystem has a long term effects on our planet and leads to various unfortunate consequences.

Eutrophication of Water Bodies

The nitrogenous waste from factories encourages the excess growth of the algae leading to the reduction of oxygen in water affecting the aquatic animals and plants. These algae uses the oxygen present in the water making it unavailable for the aquatic organisms and animals disrupting the ecosystem.

Prevention of Water Pollution

Water Pollution is one of the issues which the world is facing in the current era. WHO and other organisations have taken various steps to fight it but it is the responsibility of each and everyone to fight against water pollution then only we can stop the current situation of water crisis in the world. 

There are few steps which everyone should take to prevent water pollution:

Conserve Water

This is one of the best techniques to fight water pollution. The more water is saved the less it gets polluted. It not only reduces the chance of freshwater getting polluted but it also helps to fight water crisis.

Restrict from Disposing Chemicals and Medicines

Do not directly dispose of chemicals, medicines, cleaners, disinfectants, acid etc to the sinks. Always follow the rules mentioned on the items for its safe disposal.

Ban Untreated Waste Disposal

Government should take strict action against the industries disposing untreated sewage directly into rivers or seas. Household sewage system should also be treated before disposing into rivers.

Reducing Fertilizers and Pesticides

Fertilizers and pesticides seeps into ground and nearby water bodies and make it toxic. Reducing chemical based fertilizers and pesticides and using bio-fertilizers will definitely help in fighting water pollution.


After air, water is the crucial element for life and without it the possibility of sustaining life on this planet becomes zero. Water pollution around the globe has killed millions, either due to water crisis or water borne diseases. It is the time to wake up and strengthen our fight against water pollution. If every Global citizen of this planet vows to make a clean and green environment then the issue of water pollution could be easily solved in just a matter of time. Let's pledge together that we will undergo our responsibilities towards Mother Nature and make it the way it was before.


  1. Water is the most important resource for survival on a planet. Humans are the main cause of water pollution. Prevention of Water Pollution is necessary, without water we can not survive. So it is our responsibility to maintain the cleanness of water. Students should be aware of this. There should be maximum competitions of essays in schools. With the help of which students can get to know about this and we can be successful in saving water.

    1. I completely agree with you. We should educate our children and make them aware about the importance of water for our survival as well as for our ecosystem.


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